Campylobacter species are among the top four global causes of diarrheal diseases, according to the World Health Organisation. Campylobacter infections can be fatal among young children and the elderly. For each reported case of campylobacteriosis, 30 cases are projected to be unreported.
Coliform bacteria have been used as indicators of unsanitary conditions in food and beverage production for more than a century. Enumeration of the bacteria can help monitor the performance of food and beverage processing, equipment cleaning and sanitation, and quality of ingredients.
Cronobacter bacteria have the ability to survive for prolonged periods in low-moisture foods. In particular, Cronobacter has been isolated from powdered infant formula, rehydrated infant formula and utensils used to prepare infant formula, making the bacterium especially risky for newborn infants.
Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of bacteria recognized as an important group in the food industry for monitoring hygiene and sanitation. Their detection and enumeration can indicate improper processing and poor sanitation in the processing environment.
Control of Listeria species, including Listeria monocytogenes (L. mono) is vital in any food processing environment. While L. monois not a leading cause of foodborne illness, it is however, among the leading causes of death from foodborne illness.
Salmonella stands out among pathogenic organisms for its high prevalence. The illness it causes, salmonellosis, is the most commonly reported cause of foodborne illness today. It can occur following the consumption of many foods including raw or undercooked poultry products and low-moisture food.